Identifying Type III Secreted Effector Function via a Yeast Genomic Screen

Huei-Yi Lee A, Bastedo DP, Youn JY, Lo T, Middleton MA, Kireeva I, Lee JY, Sharifpoor S, Baryshnikova A, Zhang J, Wang PW, Peisajovich SG, Costanzo M, Andrews BJ, Boone CM, Desveaux D, Guttman DS

G3 (Bethesda) 2018 Dec;

PMID: 30573466


Gram-negative bacterial pathogens inject type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) directly into host cells to promote pathogen fitness by manipulating host cellular processes. Despite their crucial role in promoting virulence, relatively few T3SEs have well-characterized enzymatic activities or host targets. This is in part due to functional redundancy within pathogen T3SE repertoires as well as the promiscuity of individual T3SEs that can have multiple host targets. To overcome these challenges, we generated and characterized a collection of yeast strains stably expressing 75 T3SE constructs from the plant pathogen This collection is devised to facilitate heterologous genetic screens in yeast, a non-host organism, to identify T3SEs that target conserved eukaryotic processes. Among 75 T3SEs tested, we identified 16 that inhibited yeast growth on rich media and eight that inhibited growth on stress-inducing media. We utilized Pathogenic Genetic Array (PGA) screens to identify potential host targets of T3SEs. We focused on the acetyltransferase, HopZ1a, which interacts with plant tubulin and alters microtubule networks. To uncover putative HopZ1a host targets, we identified yeast genes with genetic interaction profiles most similar (i.e. congruent) to the PGA profile of HopZ1a and performed a functional enrichment analysis of these HopZ1a-congruent genes. We compared the congruence analyses above to previously described HopZ physical interaction datasets and identified kinesins as potential HopZ1a targets. Finally, we demonstrated that HopZ1a can target kinesins by acetylating the plant kinesins HINKEL and MKRP1, illustrating the utility of our T3SE-expressing yeast library to characterize T3SE functions.